Earliest settlement in India -
a) Paleolithic Man
b) Neolithic Man
a) Paleolithic Man -
- The term paleolithic is derived from the Greek word which means "old stone" . The name Paleolithic is applied to the earliest people as the only evidence to their existence is given by number of rude stone implements. Most of the paleolithic remains in India are made up of peculiar kind of rock called "Quartzite".
From this face, the paleolithic men in India are also known as Quarzite Man.
- The district of Guddapah was also centers of Paleolithic culture as it was the home of true Quartzites.
Later Paleolithic remains have been found in Madras.
- In the kurnul district, the finds are from caves containing traces of human habitation and extinct animals .
Pottery has been found in these caves.
- The Paleolithic men in India was a savage who lived in the drifts of rivers, lakes and caves !
They ate roots, fruits,nuts and the flesh of wild beasts.
- We have come across various kinds of implements of this period e.g, axes, arrow-heads, spears, digging tools, circular stones, hurling choppers, knives, scrappers, hammers stone etc.
- It has been suggested that Paleolithic man belonged to thr Negrito race of modern Andaman and Nicobar Islands They had short stature, dark skin, woolly hairs and flat noses.
b) Neolithic Man -
- Neolithic sites in India have been found near the sea, lakes, mining and fishing areas such as Maski and Tinnevelly.
- The important facctor what decided the settlement of Neolithic Men in India was the availibilty of the black coloured rock, which is more tough and tenacious than quartzite. The Neolithic Men practically occupied the whole india except the portion below kaveri.
-The workmanship of the tools found in the Salem district is of a superior quality than that of those found in the north. We have found rich collection of pottery from Malabar. Tools of various kinds have been found in Bellary district.
- The Neolithic people had their settlements in granite rocks. They gave them natural protection from rocks.
Cinder mounds have been found at several places in the bellary district and also in Hyderabad.